Unearth — so as to raise the entire thickness of the earth, which for centuries and millennia were deposited by winds, torrents of water have been compounded by the remains of rotting plants, to lift so as not to disturb all that was left, lost or abandoned in times long past. The layer of earth over the remains of the abandoned settlements and other traces of human life are growing and now annually and daily. According to experts, every year up in the air, and then deposited 5 million cubic kilometers of rock. Water dilute and carry from place to place more soil.
“Archaeology is the science of the spade”, — stated in older textbooks. It is not entirely accurate. Unearth has not only a shovel but also with a knife medical scalpel and even a watercolor brush. Before starting the excavations, the surface of the monument to break by means of pegs into equal squares of size 1 (1x 1) or 4 (2 x 2) m2. Each peg is numbered and applied to the plan. This is called the grid. The mesh helps to record findings on the plans and drawings. During excavation all work is carried out manually. To mechanize this difficult, delicate and responsible task as yet impossible. Only the mechanized removal of earth from the excavation. Very often multilayer monuments— usually the places in which humans settled repeatedly.
In Sredniaia and the middle East, where they built mud-brick mud-brick houses, layered on each other the ruins of ancient cities formed hills with a height of several tens of meters — telly. To understand this multi-layered monument is difficult. But even more difficult to stratify those ancient settlements, where the houses were built of wood. From these settlements remains only a thin layer of decayed wood residue, ash, embers, and not fully decayed organic residues. This layer of dark color is visible in the crumbling wall of a ravine or at the edge of the eroded river Bank. In archaeology this layer is called cultural layer, Continue reading
Scientists of Novosibirsk state University (NSU) and the Institute of archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian branch of the RAS during the archeological excavations found in Scary cave (Altai territory), the human remains relating to the period 35-50 thousand years ago.
Anthropologists believe that the discovery will help to shed light on the interaction of modern humans, the Neanderthal and Denisova on the territory of Altai.
Previously in sediments of this age are found only stone tools, analyzing them, one could only make assumptions about the companions of the cave. Found bone remains have yet to explore in the laboratory. These findings can both confirm existing theories of the origin of humans and to force scientists to adjust them.
About the first results of the expedition in the press release, NSU said Andrey Krivoshapkin, doctor of historical Sciences, head of chair of archeology and Ethnography of humanitarian faculty of NSU.
“This year has been good for archaeologists, said Krivoshapkin. — In the course of excavations in the Pleistocene layers of the cave of Terrible managed to find new anthropological materials. In the layers related to the age of 35-40 thousand years ago, was discovered a fragment of a nail phalanx of a person, below is a fragment of the skull, below the rib fragment, presumably, tangerinedream man, but it remains to be seen in laboratory tests. The last two findings may be at least 50 thousand years.” Continue reading
Museum of Peking man, or the Anthropological Museum in Zhoukoudian, near Beijing. in the village of Zhoukoudian. In this place was made one of the most important discoveries in anthropology. Here in 1921, were found the remains of prehistoric man, which then became known worldwide as Peking man (Sinanthropus pekinensis). This discovery became a worldwide sensation. Were first found in the remains of a prehistoric humanoid creatures not only in China but also throughout Asia. Peking man is considered by some as the “missing link” between APE and man. From 1923 to 1927 during the excavations were found several fragments of the skeleton of Peking man.
Peking man refers to a broad class of Homo erectus. It is believed that Peking man existed around the same period, the development of the first men, and People from the island of Java, was found in 1891 and known as Pithecanthropus and Australopithecus, was found in 1924 near the town of Kimberley in South Africa.
When they found the remains of a Man from the island of Java, the scientific community was initially configured quite skeptical. As for Peking man, scientists immediately recognized initially annotator scientific discoveries. Excavations from 1923 to 1927, during which were found the teeth, jaw and skull fragments of Peking man, only increased the confidence of scientists. During the second stage of the excavation, which was chaired by Chinese paleontologist Jan Junciana, also known in the Western world as Dr. C. C. Yang, was found more than 200 fragments of ancient human remains including 6 nearly completely preserved of the skull base. It was determined later that these remains belonged to more than 40 members of prehistoric human society. The second phase of excavations was carried out from 1928 to 1937 and was interrupted by the invasion of Japanese troops. Continue reading