Unearth — so as to raise the entire thickness of the earth, which for centuries and millennia were deposited by winds, torrents of water have been compounded by the remains of rotting plants, to lift so as not to disturb all that was left, lost or abandoned in times long past. The layer of earth over the remains of the abandoned settlements and other traces of human life are growing and now annually and daily. According to experts, every year up in the air, and then deposited 5 million cubic kilometers of rock. Water dilute and carry from place to place more soil.
“Archaeology is the science of the spade”, — stated in older textbooks. It is not entirely accurate. Unearth has not only a shovel but also with a knife medical scalpel and even a watercolor brush. Before starting the excavations, the surface of the monument to break by means of pegs into equal squares of size 1 (1x 1) or 4 (2 x 2) m2. Each peg is numbered and applied to the plan. This is called the grid. The mesh helps to record findings on the plans and drawings. During excavation all work is carried out manually. To mechanize this difficult, delicate and responsible task as yet impossible. Only the mechanized removal of earth from the excavation. Very often multilayer monuments— usually the places in which humans settled repeatedly.
In Sredniaia and the middle East, where they built mud-brick mud-brick houses, layered on each other the ruins of ancient cities formed hills with a height of several tens of meters — telly. To understand this multi-layered monument is difficult. But even more difficult to stratify those ancient settlements, where the houses were built of wood. From these settlements remains only a thin layer of decayed wood residue, ash, embers, and not fully decayed organic residues. This layer of dark color is visible in the crumbling wall of a ravine or at the edge of the eroded river Bank. In archaeology this layer is called cultural layer, Continue reading
Primitive man was very similar to a large monkey walking on two legs. He had not the conformation of the skeleton as modern humans. Despite the fact that he is moving on, not on four, and two short posterior limbs, torso he was greatly inclined forward in the movement. Arms were long, hanging down to the knee and were loose – they are primitive people performed different work. Later hands have been to keep different stone tools for hunting.
Head of primitive man was smaller than modern humans. It is associated with smaller brain size. The forehead was low and small. And despite the fact that the brain of the first men was larger than that of monkeys, it was poorly developed. It has not yet been formed, was pronounced only a few sounds that expressed emotions. But this kind of language sounds clear to other individuals, that is, was a means of primitive communication.
The face of primitive man was beastlike. Lower jaw much forward. The superciliary arches very pronounced. Hair was long, black and shaggy. Among primitive people was thick hair on the entire body, similar to wool. This “wool” protected the body not only from cold but also from the hot sun.
Primitive people were strong and physically developed, because they osteanabrosis for their existence: they come into the fight with wild beasts, climbed on trees and on rocks, hunted and ran a lot. The very first APE-man scientists call Homo habilis. Continue reading
Amazing discovery made by European paleontologists in South America. On the territory of Uruguay they found slonomysh – the unusual remains of an ancient rodent, which weighed about a ton and used his front teeth in about the same manner as elephants, according to a paper published in the Journal of Anatomy.
“We came to the conclusion that this animal used not only the incisors for biting and cutting food, but also for digging the soil and protection from predators. This is very similar to how elephants use their tusks,” says one of the authors of the opening, Philip Cox (Philip Cox) from the University of York (UK).
As noted by Cox and his colleagues, the remains of the ancient loomisi were discovered in 2008, Uruguayan paleontologists, however, until recently, no one gave importance, RIA Novosti reports .
When British scientists saw these fossils, they were drawn to the unusually large size of the animal, its powerful jaws and teeth. The authors took the skull to his laboratory and attempted to estimate the bite force of an ancient rodent, calculated his age and tried to evaluate the environmental niche in which he lived.
According to the calculations of paleontologists, this mammal, named Josephoartigasia monesi, was the champion Itin several categories.
First, it is the largest rodent in the history of the Earth — it weighs almost a thousand pounds, and its dimensions are this slonomysh resembled that of a Buffalo or other large hoofed animal. Continue reading