Saratov region in ancient times
The first traces of human presence on the territory of our land belong to the Paleolithic (stone age). The Paleolithic is the epoch of the formation of man and human society. In the Palaeolithic people have gone from an APE-like ancestor to modern humans. They learnt to produce at first a primitive and then more sophisticated stone tools, mastered fire, settled in the vast spaces of Europe and Asia up to the Arctic circle.
The Paleolithic coincided with the increase of humidity, abundant rainfall, especially in winter, the common cold. Appear powerful glaciers. The solid layer of ice up to three kilometres thick have covered vast territory in Europe and Northern Asia. In such harsh conditions people had to survive only outside the zone of glaciation.
The Paleolithic era spans nearly 2.5 million years and is divided into early and late. So what time on the banks of the lower Volga were the first people? For a long time scientists found it difficult to answer this question. Single, chance finds of Paleolithic time not made clear. The lower Volga region remained a “white spot” on the map of Paleolithic.
Until recently, the earliest monument of the prehistoric human stay in the Lower Volga region were found and studied from 1952 to 1954 by archaeologist S. N. Zamyatin Paleolithic Stoyanov beam Dry Mechetka on the Northern outskirts of Volgograd. Parking was arranged on the right Bank of the river in ancient times on the bottom of this beam. During excavations found traces of four large fireplaces, situated in one line, and about a dozen small stains in places. The fire was found stone tools and the debris (waste of manufacturing) and animal bones.
The study of the materials of the excavations showed that about 60— 70 thousand years ago in the gully Dry Mechetka lived first volzhane-Neanderthals. They were engaged in a joint hunt for bison, mammoth, red deer, saiga. During the excavation, the bones of these animals. Hunting supplemented by gathering. This type of economy when people used the finished products of nature, is called assign.
Collection of flint and quartzite implements from the Parking lot is very large. It completed more than 300 guns: leaf-shaped points, hand-axes and rubella, of various form and purpose, scrapers, knives, awls, and other.
Parking of Neanderthals and opened in Saratov Zavolzhye at the village Nepryakhino Ozinsky district. It is unprecedented for Parking in time square. In archaeological excavations found tens of thousands of stone artifacts, which in large quantities is saturated each square meter of the area of the settlement. Instruments are thoroughly processed. Among them scrapers, choppers, scrapers, spearheads. Found and bone tools. The outputs of the abundance of quartzite in the vicinity of the Parking lot and the numerous stone tools suggest the presence of a large workshop for manufacturing tools.
Traces of Neanderthal man were found in the right Bank of the Saratov region, in novoburasskogo near (near the village Areas). Here in 1982 in the natural Salt gully made of flint finds and items, as well as bones of fossil animals: the woolly rhinoceros, horse and shirokopalyj other. A set of stone tools represented by such as scraping knife and their fragments. Unfortunately, the Parking lot, washed in spring water, not yet found.
In the process of manufacturing and using of guns was improved and the man himself, his thinking and speech. By the end of the Paleolithic formed man of the modern type.