How are archaeological excavations
Unearth — so as to raise the entire thickness of the earth, which for centuries and millennia were deposited by winds, torrents of water have been compounded by the remains of rotting plants, to lift so as not to disturb all that was left, lost or abandoned in times long past. The layer of earth over the remains of the abandoned settlements and other traces of human life are growing and now annually and daily. According to experts, every year up in the air, and then deposited 5 million cubic kilometers of rock. Water dilute and carry from place to place more soil.
“Archaeology is the science of the spade”, — stated in older textbooks. It is not entirely accurate. Unearth has not only a shovel but also with a knife medical scalpel and even a watercolor brush. Before starting the excavations, the surface of the monument to break by means of pegs into equal squares of size 1 (1x 1) or 4 (2 x 2) m2. Each peg is numbered and applied to the plan. This is called the grid. The mesh helps to record findings on the plans and drawings. During excavation all work is carried out manually. To mechanize this difficult, delicate and responsible task as yet impossible. Only the mechanized removal of earth from the excavation. Very often multilayer monuments— usually the places in which humans settled repeatedly.
In Sredniaia and the middle East, where they built mud-brick mud-brick houses, layered on each other the ruins of ancient cities formed hills with a height of several tens of meters — telly. To understand this multi-layered monument is difficult. But even more difficult to stratify those ancient settlements, where the houses were built of wood. From these settlements remains only a thin layer of decayed wood residue, ash, embers, and not fully decayed organic residues. This layer of dark color is visible in the crumbling wall of a ravine or at the edge of the eroded river Bank. In archaeology this layer is called cultural layer, because it retains the remnants of a ancient culture. The thickness of the cultural layer. In Moscow during the construction of metro was discovered that in the center of the city, he comes up to 8 m, and near Sokolniki is only 10 cm on average in Moscow over 800 years, deposited 5 m of the cultural layer. In the Roman forum. the thickness of the cultural layer is 13 m, in Nishura (Mesopotamia) — 20 m, at the settlement of Anau (Central Asia) is 36 m Above the encampments of the Paleolithic in Africa — hundreds of metres of rock. In the Parking lot of Karatau in Tajikistan over the cultural layer of the 60 m clay. Ancient people dug dugouts, pits for food storage, recess for fire, not caring of course about the preservation of archaeological cultural layer. To better understand the stratigraphy (alternating layers) of the monument, between the squares leaving a narrow strip of unspoilt stretches of the edge. Wing after the completion of the excavation can be seen as one cultural layer is replaced by another. The edge profiles are Photographed and sketched. Between the eyebrows at the same time the earth is removed in layers not exceeding 20 cm over the entire area of the excavation.
The work of an archaeologist can be compared with the work of a surgeon. A small mistake leads to the death of an ancient object. During the excavation need not only not to damage the finds, but also to preserve, to save them from death with all the details to describe, photograph, sketch, plan of ancient structures, stratigraphic profiles of the excavation, just to mention them, the sequence of layers. It is necessary to take the analysis of various materials, etc.